In the current study, a total of 1015 prescriptions were analysed over a one year period, out of which 415 (40.88 %) showed different types of prescription errors. We analysed the prescription errors into 4 categories- indication, dosing, kinetic and combination errors. Use of an irrational FDC was considered as an error as it reflected ignorance on the part of the practising doctors about the rationality of the combination they prescribed. Interestingly, the study revealed a maximum of combination errors thus confirming our assertion that doctors do not give proper thought when they prescribe FDCs. Often it is seen that the medical representatives misguide the doctors into the authenticity and rationality of a wrong FDC and due to the lack of knowledge the medical practitioners often fall prey and are liable for prescribing such irrational FDCs. This amounts to a rise in knowledge–based errors in clinical practice.
One distinguishing feature which has been consistently observed in most of the studies on OLP/OLL is the type of the inflammatory cell infiltrate. It has been stated that plasma cells, eosinophils and neutrophils in inﬂammatory infiltrate can be distinctive for OLL compared to OLP. However, to accept this finding as a standard protocol, a larger number of patients need to be examined. Since the qualification of the inflammatory cell infiltrate has not been included in the 2003 WHO criteria for the diagnosis of OLP/OLL, the discussion of the same has not been elaborated by this article.
Evaluating the four cases with respect to the modified WHO diagnostic criteria, Case 1 and Case 3 showed typical clinical and histopathological criteria and thus fulfilled the diagnosis of OLP. Case 2 proved to be histopathologically typical of OLP, but clinically only compatible and thus fell in the category of OLL type 2. By virtue of epithelial dysplasia elaborated by Case 4 as well as the presentation restricted to the right buccal mucosa, this case would be termed as OLL type 3.
A 60-year-old male patient presented with complaint of multiple swellings over the scalp and face for a duration of 5 to 7 years. The swellings measured between the range of 2 to 4 centimetres. These swellings gradually increased in size over a period of years. On history, it was also noted that similar types of swellings were present in the patient’s father and sister. Thus, proving the hereditary nature of the lesion. An excision biopsy of one of the swellings over the scalp was done to determine the exact nature of the swelling.
Here we present a case of adenocarcinoma of small bowel with extensive metastasis to the peritoneum, forming serosal nodules in the large bowel and consequently causing ischemic perforation of a segment of large bowel.
A 75-year-old female, ex-smoker (beedi) for 20 years, presented with a chief complaint of moderate to high grade fever for 20 days, vomiting dark brown-black vomitus for 2 days, loose black tarry stools for 2 days. Patient was pale, with decreased bilateral breath sounds. There was bilateral massive pleural effusion, perforation of large bowel and peritonitis.
Exploratory laparotomy revealed a 3 x 3 cm perforation in the splenic flexure of the colon and multiple aphthoid ulcers in the transverse colon. Multiple peritoneal deposits and pelvic seedlings were observed. The medial surface of spleen was sloughed off. There was a growth noted in the mesentery of the small bowel 60 cm distal to duodeno jejunal flexure which was believed by the surgeon to be a metastasis from adenocarcinoma of large bowel. Resection of large bowel segment, resection anastomosis of the jejunal segment with the growth and, splenectomy was done and specimens were sent for histopathology.
Gestational trophoblastic disease constitutes a spectrum of tumors and tumor like conditions characterized by proliferation of placental tissue, either villous or trophoblastic. The study was conducted in the Department of Pathology, Goa Medical College, as a retrospective study. A total of 24 cases were studied over a period from January 2014 to March 2017. The parameters which were studied included age group, obstetric history, beta-hCG values and histopathological types. Of the 24 cases, 87% were in the age group of 20-35 years. The spectrum of disorders that were studied comprised of 79% of complete mole, 8% partial mole, 1 case of placental site trophoblastic tumor and 1 case of choriocarcinoma.
The present study was undertaken with the aim:
1) To find out which was the most commonly occurring GTD in Goa.
2) To find out which was the most common age group for the occurrence of GTD.