1. The high mortality of extremely low birth weight babies is still a major concern in our neonatal unit. We need to make all efforts to reduce it. The maximum number of ELBW deaths occur in the first 48 hours and then after seven days. Hence, improved perinatal management and prevention of late onset sepsis would help in reducing mortality.
2. Birth asphyxia is the major reason for mortality in all weight categories within the first 48 hours, hence increased training of personnel in neonatal resuscitation is needed.
3. Sepsis is the commonest cause of mortality in the bigger babies which means that health-care associated infections and its prevention should be taken up in the form of prevention of cross-transmission, barrier nursing and antibiotic stewardship.
4. Detailed and regular evaluation of unit mortality statistics based on weight, gestation, duration of life, perinatal risk factors, resuscitation, antenatal steroids administration, and other factors should be done to identify risk factors of mortality especially in low birth weight babies.
A concise discussion of the common newborn rashes is done here in the article.
Erythema Toxicum Neonatorum
Harlequin Colour Change
Transient Pustular Melanosis
Neonatal Herpes Simplex
Anaemia is functionally defined as an insufficient RBC mass to adequately deliver oxygen to peripheral tissues, thereby causing tissue hypoxia. Although red cell mass is the gold standard in the assessment of anaemia, its measurement is cumbersome and rarely performed outside of clinical research. Anaemia can also be defined as a reduction in haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, haematocrit or number of RBCs per cubic millimetre. As per the World Health Organization (WHO), the haemoglobin threshold for children aged 5.00 to 11.99 years is 11.5 g/dl and for children aged 12.00-14.99 years is 12.0 g/dl.
Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world; responsible for a staggering amount of ill health, lost productivity, and premature death.
Iron is necessary for production of haemoglobin which contains more than one-half of the total-body iron. The demands for iron during erythropoiesis are created by three variables: tissue oxygenation, erythrocyte turnover, and erythrocyte loss from haemorrhage.