Malignant neoplasms are more common than benign lesions in the colorectum. Patients above 50 years are affected more commonly, and the maximum incidence of both benign and malignant lesions is seen in the 6th decade. In this study, it was also seen that females were more affected (marginally) as compared to males in the present study. Rectum is the most frequent site of occurrence of neoplasms. Adenocarcinoma is the commonest tumour of colorectum. The prevalence of CRCs in age, site, and histopathological type was comparable to other studies done in India and abroad. The commonest polypoidal lesion is adenomatous polyp followed by hyperplastic polyp.
An increasing incidence of colorectal malignancies has been observed in patients less than 50 years of age. Family history, consumption of alcohol and red meat, obesity, and cigarette smoking are risk factors associated with malignant neoplasms in this area. Thus, any patient having a change in bowel habits, iron deficiency anaemia, abdominal pain, blood or mucus in stool, should be examined (digital rectal examination) and investigated by proctosigmoidoscopy/ colonoscopy and other radiological tests for early diagnosis and management of colorectal carcinoma.
A 48-year-old female patient presented with a chief complaint of swelling of the left side of the upper jaw for the past 15 days. The patient had a history of occasional yellowish discharge from the gums, but no complaint of pain. On oral examination, a smooth surfaced dome-shaped swelling was noted on the palate in relation to the left maxillary canine. The swelling was soft in consistency and non-tender to palpation. The overlying mucosa appeared stretched.
A 5-year-old female child was brought to the emergency room with a history of abdominal pain in the peri-umbilical region for one day. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a heterogeneous mass in segment V/VIII of liver measuring 3.3 x 2.2 x 2.2 centimetres (cm) and was seen to project from the surface of liver. Areas of calcification were noted in the inferior component of lesion. Lesion showed vascularity on colour doppler study. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) showed a heterogeneous enhancing mass in segment VI of liver with rupture and active extravasation of contrast. Massive hemoperitoneum was noted.
We present a case of a pregnant patient with epilepsy requiring lower segment caesarean section (LSCS). A 25-year-old female, G3P0+2 at 36+1 weeks with seizure disorder and hypothyroidism who presented with severe intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) with doppler changes. The modality of anaesthesia planned for her was epidural with general anaesthesia. We used multimodal anaesthetic techniques which not only reduced the dose requirement of every drug but also provided adequate anaesthesia, analgesia, amnesia and muscle relaxation. The postoperative analgesia part was also well managed.
The most common peak incidence of this tumor as per available literature was in late sixth and early seventh decades of life with male preponderance. In our case, the age of occurrence was in a much younger male of 42 years age, showing a relatively early onset as compared to the reported peak ages in the literature. It has been noted that the most frequent site is the stomach (52%), followed by the small intestine (25%), large bowel (11%) and oesophagus (5%).