The protein C pathway provides important contributions to maintain the ﬂuidity of the circulation, prevent thrombosis, and protect the integrity of the vasculature in response to injury. This article presents a 28-day-old male with a scrotal swelling and protein C deﬁciency. The infant improved with disappearance of the scrotal swelling and he was discharged on warfarin to prevent further thrombosis. A scrotal swelling could be the ﬁrst manifestation of thrombosis resulting from protein C deﬁciency.
Hepatitis A is a common infection in India and is known to cause fulminant hepatitis in children with sickle cell disease. This is a case report of an 18-month-old boy with sickle cell trait who presented with severe hemolysis. Investigations, diagnosis and treatment are discussed and patient recovered with supportive management. Hepatitis A can trigger severe hemolysis even in sickle cell trait patients.
Type 1 diabetes accounts for only about 5-10% of all cases of diabetes. There are two types; idiopathic and immune mediated. It has serious short-term and long-term complications. Cardinal clinical features and complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis, are discussed here. Management of type 1 diabetes requires continuing attention to many aspects, including insulin administration, blood glucose monitoring, meal planning, and screening for comorbid conditions and diabetes-related complications. These complications include microvascular and macrovascular disease, which account for the major morbidity and mortality associated with type 1 diabetes.
Seizures are a common occurrence in both term and preterm neonates. Neonatal convulsion is a paroxysmal disturbance in the neurological function of neurons. They require immediate evaluation because the underlying condition might insult the developing and vulnerable neurons of neonates. Seizures are easily recognizable and require quick treatment. However, sometimes they can be missed. This review article focuses on a brief introduction, the aetiology and various types of seizures, and the clinical approach, different diagnostic methods and management of seizures due to the underlying condition. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is the most common cause of neonatal seizure. Other causes are metabolic, infectious (meningitis), intracranial haemorrhage, developmental defects, and other miscellaneous causes. Management depends on underlying causes.
Neonatal hypothermia is a condition which is faced by both general practitioners, as well as pediatricians, in routine practice. Neonatal hypothermia has been recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a factor contributing to the morbidity and mortality risk of newborns. Neonatal hypothermia may occur because of exposure to a cold environment, contact with a cold object/surface, if the baby is wet or not clothed properly, neonatal sepsis, intracranial hemorrhage and other reasons. It may result in adverse consequences. It can be easily prevented by giving skin to skin contact and maintaining the warm chain. Here, a practical, clinical approach with preventive measures is discussed.