Germline mutations affecting the Krebs cycle enzyme, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), can also cause an inherited tumour susceptibility syndrome. Thus, inherited mutations in SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD genes (encoding subunits of SDH) are associated with a high risk of head and neck paragangliomas and/or adrenal and extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas. Very rarely, germline mutations in SDHB have been found in patients with RCC and a personal or family history of pheochromocytoma and/or paraganglioma.read more
In developing countries like India, there exists a gaping breach in the percentage of terminally-ill populace as opposed to the percentage of resources available to fight the diseases. It is, therefore, no surprise that several Indians choose to explore other lesser known forms of medicine like Ayurveda, alongside the conventional allopathic medicine; the reasons governing this choice being accessibility, affordability, social coaxing between peers, among other reasons. Vaidya et al, stated that Ayurvedic formulations have effectively controlled the side effects of chemotherapy.
Ayurveda literally means the “science of life” and it is a science that aims foremost at preserving health and if required, at treating disease.read more
In aphorism 207, Dr. Hahnemann guides us to procure detailed history of the treatment taken till date, regarding perturbing medicines most frequently used, external applications, baths, pernicious artificial operations the patient has undergone. This is to enable the physician to avoid the employment of medicines that have already been improperly used.read more
The differential diagnosis for hepatoblastoma is impacted by the age of the patient. In infants, hemangiomas, hemangioendotheliomas and hamartomas are common liver tumors. However, a liver tumor in an adolescent is more likely to be a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)read more
Histologic classification of Ewing’s sarcoma includes three major subtypes: classic or conventional type, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and a typical Ewing’s sarcoma. These tumors share the same immunohistochemical and molecular features, differing only in the extent of neural differentiation.
Classic Ewing’s sarcoma is composed of small round uniform cells. The nuclei are round, and the nucleoli are inconspicuous. The cytoplasmic boundaries are indistinct, such that, the cytoplasm of several cells seems to form a syncytium with nuclei are embedded in it. Mitotic activity is usually not prominent.
PNET: the diagnosis requires the presence of Homer Wright rosettes with central core of neuropil, the background contains monotonous fields of conventional Ewing’s Sarcoma.
A typical Ewing’s sarcoma difficult to recognize because these tumors have a greater degree of cytologic variability or growths patterns bringing a broad variety of primary or metastatic small round cell tumors in differential diagnosis.read more
Based on the International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification (INPC), the tumour cells show a spectrum of differentiation from primitive neuroblasts to ganglion cells and their classification depends on the relative amounts of these components. This classification applies to untreated neuroblastomas, chemotherapy often induces maturation and/or nuclear anaplasia, therefore, post-chemotherapy neuroblastoma should be diagnosed only as neuroblastoma with chemotherapy effect.read more
Factors Influencing Decision-making in Parents of Children with Life-threatening Illnesses Transitioning to Palliative Care
Socioeconomics and family structure also play an important role in the process of decision making. Parents in a joint-family usually rely on the elders of the family while engaging in decision-making for their child. Parents from a low socioeconomic background rely on the physician to make an active plan and decision for the child while keeping in mind their financial situation. Parents usually prefer to take the child home rather than engaging in palliative care treatment.read more
One of the pre-eminent neuroscientists studying music and the brain at Harvard Medical School, Dr. Gottfried Schlaug, is a proponent of a therapy called “Melodic Intonation Therapy,” which is now quite popular in music therapy. Schlaug found that stroke victims who were aphasic and unable to form three- or four-word sentences, could still sing the lyrics of a song. After hours and hours of intensive singing lessons, Schlaug found that the music was able to literally “rewire” the brains of his patients and create a homologous speach centre in the right hemisphere to compensate for the left hemisphere’s damage.read more
With the advent of the technology revolution and discovery of the internet and cyberspace, the practice of medicine has undergone a sea of change in all spheres. It has been greatly modified, revolutionised and influenced by these technological advances. These have changed the aspects and mode of functioning and practices of all branches of medicine. Besides the doctors, paramedical staff, nursing staff, attendants, patients, their relatives and well-wishers and the public at large use the computers, smart phones and internet to assess medical information and gain knowledge. The present medical students, both undergraduate and postgraduate, as well as students of pharmacy, allied health sciences, nursing, homeopathy and ayurveda, are well versed in the use of technology.read more