Gender sensitization is the modification of behaviors so that there is greater awareness and empathy to create gender equality. Sexual offences include sexual gestures, stalking, ogling, voyeurism, molestation and intercourse (rape). We like to know everything to prevent heart, lung, liver, kidney diseases etc. but we are reluctant to discuss anything about human sexuality including sexually transmitted diseases or anything related to sex because ours is a culture of silence. It is time to break this silence.
This article describes the importance of early ophthalmology screening in patients with diabetes and the various treatment options available.
– Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes of visual loss.
– Regular ophthalmology screening is a must in all diabetics for early detection and prevention of diminished visual acuity or loss.
– Proper management of diabetes with glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) under 7mg/dl to prevent the onset of eye complications
– Once retinopathy has set in, prompt treatment with medications and laser photocoagulation can prevent further progression of vision loss, if initiated early on.
A 12-year old boy, a known case of thalassemia major, with a history of receiving multiple blood transfusions was declared ‘dead on arrival’ (DOA) when brought to Goa Medical College. A medicolegal autopsy was conducted and tissues from various organs were sent for histopathological examination. Microscopic examination of the tissues sent showed a diffuse deposition of golden-yellow pigment both intracellularly as well as extracellularly. The pigment appeared blue on Prussian blue staining and was hence confirmed to be hemosiderin. Thus, the final histopathological diagnosis of hemosiderosis was made.
Gorlin or Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant inherited condition and an ectodermal polydysplasia. The principal genetic defect is mutation in the PTCH gene, which has been mapped to chromosome 9q22.3- q31. Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) can appear as solitary lesion or in association with Gorlin- Goltz syndrome (GGS). GGS affects the skin, jaw and brain.
Autoantibodies are a characteristic feature of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. The term anti-nuclear antibodies(ANA) refers to a diverse group of autoantibodies directed against one or more components of the cell nucleus, including nucleic acids themselves and proteins concerned with processing of DNA or RNA. This immune dysregulation occurs in genetically predisposed individuals who are exposed to certain insults such as infection or other unknown trigger factors.
But mere presence of autoantibodies is not synonymous with autoimmune diseases as these can be observed in otherwise healthy individuals. Autoantibodies in the presence of characteristic clinical features helps in the diagnosis of autoimmune disease. In the absence of a gold standard for the diagnosis of rheumatological diseases, they are best used as part of a diagnostic panel rather than as a marker indicating one particular disease.