There were several physicians practicing classical medicine in Vedic period like Dhanvantari, Bharadwaja and Atreya. However, the great progress in Ayurvedic medicine (based on natural herbs) was made during the periods of Charaka and Sushruta. Charaka Samhita describes: human embryology, anatomy, physiology, various diseases and their treatment. Sushruta Samhita describes surgery, many difficult and intricate surgical operations such as removal of stone from urinary bladder and delivering the foetus through an operation in the abdomen (which later came to be known as Caesarean section).
“Yoga is an invaluable gift of ancient Indian tradition. It embodies unity of mind and body; thought and action; restraint and fulfillment; harmony between man and nature and a holistic approach to health and well-being. Yoga is not about exercise but to discover the sense of oneness with ourselves, the world and Nature. By changing our lifestyle and creating consciousness, it can help us to deal with climate change. Let us work towards adopting an International Yoga Day,” Indian PrimeMinister Shri Modi said.
Anal fissures is a thin tear in the anal mucosa. Apart from pain from surgical wounds, the most common painful condition faced by women in their confinement period is anal fissures‘. The young mother is frightened by its presence and afraid to go for defecation. Infants also sometimes land up in this condition. The most common causes and effective management of the condition is discussed in detail in the following article.
When thyroid function is normal, the actions of thyroid hormone are transparent to the clinical observer. When there is thyroid dysfunction, in which either excessive or insufficient amounts of thyroid hormone are produced, the effect can be dramatic and may be seen in diverse organ systems including the cardiovascular, central nervous and reproductive systems. So important are the actions of thyroid hormone that even when the thyroid function is mildly abnormal, the end-organ impact on overall health can be significant, even if the symptoms and science are imperceptible to the patient.
Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas are related tumors, sometimes referred to as 10% tumors that are known to cause of hypertension that can be corrected. They occur in Adrenal and extra-Adrenal sites and may produce catecholamines like Epinephrine and Norepinephrine. They usually occur in the fourth and fifth decade and have a distinct appearance on gross microscopy & imaging techniques. This review gives the details of these tumors.
This Review deals with Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma which arise from the Chromaffin cells and produce Catecholamines like Epinephrine, Norepinephrine and other peptides that lead to Hypertension.The Clinical aspects, Gross features, Microscopic picture, Investigations and various Associated Syndromes are discussed.